Fuel system in your Airhead BMW Motorcycle---
Tank cleaning methods. Premium vs. regular. Fuel additives.
Fitting other tanks. Seats & fit with various tanks.
Throttle & choke cables. Fuel hose. Tank sealants & liners.
©Copyright, 2014, R. Fleischer
>>>Refer to article #1A, #1B, & #75 for more information<<<
>>>An article that describes Lead Substitutes, in depth: >>>
1. An extensive article on Dell'Orto's, covering all their carburetors: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/dell.htm. It explains in great detail not just how the Dell'Orto works, but is applicable in general to all carburetors....& MIGHT be worthwhile for you to peruse, even if you don't have one of these carburetors, which was used only on the R90S Airheads.
2A. If you have a high compression ratio Airhead (modified later type; or, 1979 & earlier type with stock compression ratio), & you use high octane fuel, be advised that when fueling up at a service station, it is VASTLY better NOT to fuel up at the type of 'pump' that has only ONE nozzle/hose. Your fuel may be diluted by a modest quantity of lower octane fuel remaining from the last user...from the internal valve, pump, etc....through the hose, etc....somewhat depending on the type of equipment in use. The dispensing companies don't offer this information easily, & 1/4 gallon or more is VERY common.
2B. There is an old controversy over possible increases in combustion chamber temperatures, ETC., when using premium gasoline's in lower compression BMW airhead engines, where lower octane is supposedly not needed. Gasoline burns at about the same rate under normal, that is not detonating, etc., conditions. The output (BTU) per gallon of Premium gasoline is potentially ....or even likely...to be a small amount LOWER than for Regular. THE ENERGY CONTENT OF FUEL ALSO VARIES WITH THE SEASONAL CHANGES OF THE FUEL! I think it is likely that SOME premium gasoline's WILL give LOWER gas mileage than a regular gasoline will.....assuming the engine ran properly on Regular grade gasoline. Winter gasoline blends tend to have rather volatile things like butane or propane in them to make it easier for engines to start. In the USA so-called oxygenates, such as alcohol, are added to most fuels. These additions GENERALLY cause 6%-10% POORER gas mileage. They are NOT good for your engine, carburetors, hoses, etc. All the oxygenates tend to cause the engine to run leaner. Some Airheads are already running on the lean side of best power mixture...& more leaning will cause stumbling, etc.
3. There are a number of types of aftermarket fuel filters on the market, metal ones, cleanable element ones, various sizes, colors, etc. I prefer the impregnated paper type, NAPA #7-02323. That number may have to be entered at the store or on-line as 702323. There is a much more complete article on this website on the fuel filters, petcocks, etc: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/fuelfltrs&petcocks.htm. Due to the age of our airheads, I am a firm believer in using aftermarket paper filters BELOW the petcocks, and vertically, & maintaining clean petcock mesh screens. Tank debris is a prime cause for a gasoline soaked foot (besides old worn float needles). The 'stuff' gets right by the tank mesh screens....which are designed to trap bigger particles. I clean
the petcocks thoroughly every year, by removing (at simple
tank cleaning time), blowing them out with compressed air.
If the handles are starting to get stiff....usually
that means at the every few years point I do the more thorough tank job
....I disassemble the petcocks & service them. Almost never do I need any parts, other than a faintsmear of silicone grease. Failure to do regular tank cleaning is fairly likely to eventually result in a rotted tank bottom AND a lot of filth getting into your carburetors, or at least fuel screen(s).
4. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/leadtet/leadh.htm has some interesting information on lead & MTBE for gasoline. There are other websites that have considerable technical information on fuels, additives, etc.
There is a fair amount of information scattered throughout this article of mine, that covers leaded fuels:
5. Questions often arise as to whether or not the screen, petcock, lines, filter(s), etc., are flowing enough fuel. This is easy to actually calculate, if you figure the worst case, such as 20 mpg at wide-open throttle. But, here is a guideline of mine, that is perfectly adequate, & you don't have to play with mathematics:
6. Tank cleaning, coating, etc.: See http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/chemicalsetc.htm and http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/references.htm
To clean a fuel tank, you must remove it. It is easier to remove the petcocks before you remove the tank from the bike. I clean the petcocks/screens at the yearly tank cleaning time, & I may take them apart for a more thorough cleaning & silicone grease lubrication of the parts...but that usually happens only every few years. There are several methods for cleaning the fuel tank. You might want to use the high pressure wand (soap mode, then rinse mode there or at home) at the local car wash. If your local car wash uses non-phosphate soap 'environmentally safe, green, etc.'), then do the entire job at home with a garden hose & common hose nozzle. Dish detergent or laundry detergent is OK. Stronger is TSP, mix it with water of course!
If the tank cleaning is done because the gasoline, maybe some moisture, whatever, has been in the tank & dried (mostly) from very long term storage, & probably looks like syrup (or??)...then the tank should first be cleaned by adding a fair amount of some moderately strong cleaner like Simple Green. Use a 50-50 mixture & let it sit overnight. Then go about cleaning the inside with a pressure wand of soapy water, then clean water, from the nearest car wash place. If all the crud does not come out, you can either repeat the process, or start with petroleum type solvent chemicals. Lacquer thinner is a good first choice, followed by increasingly stronger solvents if needed. I use a siphon type gun with a gallon jug with hole in top cap for the
siphon hose, & my air compressor. The jug contains a strong detergent & water, and sometimes I had a solvent. The stronger the solvent, the more likely spillage will damage the paint on the outside of the tank, so take your time and be careful.
NOTE: One of the BIG reasons to clean an Airhead steel tank every year is due to condensed moisture, which becomes water droplets at the bottom of the tank & will ROT OUT YOUR TANK. If you live in an area where dew condenses on things, or your area has high humidity, this is exceptionally important. I live in a very dry area, & still clean & then thoroughly dry my tanks, EVERY year. I usually do the job during my Pre-Winter preparations for storage. I have NEVER had a tank leak at the bottom.
Note: The information presented in this section is GENERALLY for Airhead steel tanks. If you are reading this & have a fuel-injection bike with the submerged fuel pump, be very cautious about using harsh chemicals. Aluminum tanks
CLEANING: Remove the tank, petcocks intact. Do the rest outdoors. Mix two tablespoons of common dish detergent
(works better than "soap", particularly the no phosphates soaps) in enough warm water to fill your tank at least 1/3 full (both sides of the tank). Don't fill the tank to the brim, you want plenty of room for shake/sloshing. Shake the tank thoroughly. NOW remove the petcocks, and flush the tank strongly with your outside-the-house hose (nozzle set for a somewhat narrowed but strong stream). This can loosen & lift some old deteriorating red lining if vigorous enough, I don't find that a problem. Wash out the tank thoroughly. For the petcocks you removed, flush them in all handle positions. DO NOT re-install them now. If this mild cleaning does not do a good cleaning job, you will have to use my other suggestions. I assume here that the mild cleaning HAS done the job....or; you have done the more powerful solvents type cleaning, and have finished-up with the milder detergent and water cleaning. Once the tanks is thoroughly cleaned properly, the yearly or bi-yearly cleaning with detergent and water will be quite adequate.
The next step I recommend is to then treat the bottom area with phosphoric acid mixture (hardware store screen door & other metals etching solution). DO NOT use anything except phosphoric acid mixture. You will need cork or rubber stoppers to plug the petcock holes, & hardware stores also sell those. This job can be done with the inside of the tank still water-wet, but do flush it of any detergent or solvent mixtures. DO NOT leave solvent mixtures in the tank, do the detergent and water cleaning just prior to the next steps. You do NOT have to dry the tank.
I have tried several of these common low percentage phosphoric acid etching liquids from hardware stores, they all seem OK. Low percentage phosphoric acid converts any remaining rust, even deep into the seams type of rusting....& tends to very slightly seal the interior of the tank, especially the vulnerable bottom seam area. Any bare steel areas, or rusting areas, will have a gray-colored look to them after you treat the tank. That is a protective layer, although soft. It will take at least several hours of contact with the etching solution to do a good job. I do it overnight. I then clean the tank with mild detergent and water mixture, shake all the water out of the tank I can via the outlets, and then dry the tank, see below, as I do it over my house heater outlets.
BTW: If you have never heard of phosphoric acid etching solution, perhaps you have heard of the jellied form called Naval Jelly.
I am anal about this (fixing bottom leaks and repainting a tank is COSTLY & even if you do it yourself, it is a HUGE amount of labor). I put the washed & cleaned tank over one of my house heater's floor outlets for a week or so, outlets downwards, cap off or open. It does not smell if cleaned properly first. Usually you do not need to do the phosphoric acid treatment every year, as it is not necessary IF you take care of your tank in refueling it (particularly in climate conditions where dew would form overnight), & clean the tank yearly.
Rust-forming water accumulation is GREATLY reduced by refilling the tank before parking the cooling Airhead overnight, where dew could collect INside the tank, if it is not quite full! The dew collects, runs to the bottom in droplets; then you have water in the very bottom; & with oxygen that gets in the fuel, etc., rust begins at the
slightest microscopic place the tank, especially the bottom, is not protected.
Be sure to have filters below the petcocks & clean the petcock screens yearly at least.
There are numerous tank coatings one can apply to the tanks and these take VASTLY MORE labor to use, compared to phosphoric acid solution. I don't like Kreem, Caswell's is OK, as is POR15. I have had good results using the vastly simpler techniques I describe above, EVEN on tanks that have the red interior lining flaking off. The big problem with fuel tanks is not that some red lining is peeling off from the tank walls....it is deterioration at the tank bottom. It is water that is the worst offender.
NO QUESTION that sometimes one of these coatings like POR15 can be needed. Be SURE to prepare the tank properly...do NOT SKIMP on labor...you will likely need to spend more time on preparation than the manufacturer of the coating says.
****It is possible to use other products & methods to clean or treat the tank insides. You can also use the reverse-plating method using sodium carbonate & water to fill the tank (obviously, first close off the petcock outlets),
then fit a big cork (OR?) to the top opening, with a piece of iron, rebar, etc.,
going through the cork & into the solution...but it does NOT touch the metal tank. Use a low voltage DC power source to remove the rust. You can finish by
using a zinc rod (maybe an old carburetor bowl or pieces of one), & reversing the power leads. You will actually zinc plate the inside of the tank, which is a very good protector against rust. I suggest you look up this type of cleaning & plating via an Internet search (Google.com is your friend here). Don't use the phosphoric acid method if you plan to do this electric and zinc plating method.
SOME folks will purchase a small plastic bottle of gas or fuel-line treatment....the type that is for preventing water from freezing in the fuel system of cars. This stuff is usually a very dry alcohol. Some will clean their tanks with this stuff, using it as a solvent to wash the insides.....and to pick up any water.....and they then drain it from the petcock area. This does work fairly well (for a cleaning)....and no other solvents nor detergent/water nor acid treatment is done. If you are a regular tank cleaner type of person this may work fairly well, although I am not so sure that it would not be a bit harsh on the tank liner. But, I have some customers who have been doing it for many years without major flaking. I'm not convinced it is a universal answer.
7. Alcohol in fuels (gasohol, etc.):
A lot has been printed, a lot said, about ethanol in gasoline. Yes, it is bad for hoses & other parts including plastic types of gas tanks. BMW has had bulletins about the dangers & problems of using gasohol, especially if over 10% alcohol. We can't get away from ethanol in our gasolines in the USA. Below is a link to an article, for boaters with fiberglass tanks. It explains a lot, if you read it thoroughly. I could cite a LOT of articles about problems from alcohol-laced fuels. Just be aware, that even if you have a steel tank, the lining may be damaged over time, & alcohol-laced fuels are likely to deteriorate MUCH faster & attract condensation of water easier which rots the tank bottoms. In addition, alcohol causes carbureted engines to run leaner, unless you change carburetor adjustments including jetting & needle position, ETC. Ethanol-laced fuels give poorer fuel mileage. Common old style rubber fuel lines used on Airheads deteriorate faster. Same for lines on the injected K bikes. Here is the article about boat fiberglass tanks: http://www.boatus.com/seaworthy/fueltest.asp. The bottom-line is to especially try to avoid alcohol-laced fuels totally if you have a fiberglass tank!
8. Fuels, in general:
Summer & Winter fuels vary in volatility & therefore in ease of starting, & the energy content and gas mileage can vary as much as 7%. A GRAM of LEAD (as TEL) will raise the (R+M)/2 value of octane by about 6 numbers. Pure hydrocarbon gasoline, NOT the type with any alcohol in it, can only hold about 0.15 teaspoon of water in each gallon. In other words, water hardly dissolves in pure gasoline. But, if the gasoline has about 10% by volume of Ethanol, a very common additive used for oxygenation purposes, then that fuel can now hold about 4.0 teaspoons per gallon (assuming very dry gasoline & ethanol to begin with). Problems occurs if just a bit more water is introduced, even by overnight condensation, over time. The gasoline, water, & alcohol can SEPARATE, & water & alcohol sinks to the bottom of the tank....which hardly does any good to steel tanks, & might be hard on the engine if it gets into the engine. The fuel characteristics also change even if that does not happen!
Here is a chart of the
MINIMUM NEEDED RON (remember, RON is perhaps 5 or 6 points HIGHER
than USA marked pumps which are (R+M)/2. So, the values below can be REDUCED by about 5 or 6 points, for what YOUR engine is LIKELY to need, for United States marked pumps.
Keep in mind that your
engine LIKELY has a HIGHER compression ratio than its mechanical calculation...due to carbon buildup,
etc. Keep in mind also that RON is NOT done by the most stringent testing; RON is for low & medium
throttle/power settings. It is MON that is for high power output. Remember, that in the USA, RON+MON
divided by 2, in other words, an average, is what is on the USA pumps.
Compression Ratio Needed RON (for USA marked pumps, subtract about 5 or 6 points)
NOTE! The above chart is for a near perfectly machined, clean & smooth combustion chamber, under near ideal conditions, & with single plug per cylinder ignition. For a dual-plugged ignition, might be best to use the same figures & just know that the near perfectly machined & clean & smooth combustion chamber is likely not necessary.
(a) A stock Airhead with 9.5 rated CR, having single spark plug per cylinder and reasonably carbone'd combustion chamber, riding at sea level on a hot day, from the above chart, needs about 96 RON, and subtracting 5 points means the pump in the USA needs to be marked as 91 octane. I would use that as a minimum, and if 92 or 93 was available, use that.
If you had dual plugs, you could probably use Regular, 87, or mid-grade 89.
(b) If your Airhead had a stock 8.2 CR; you can easily use "regular" grade of gasoline, typically that is shown on USA pumps as 87 octane. You could also do fine on 85, shown on some high altitude pumps.
(c) If your Airhead has near 10:1, you need dual plugs and premium fuel, USA pump 91 is a MINIMUM.
I've been asked about how much lead (TEL) was used in the leaded car gasoline's we used to have, years ago. It was up to 2.4 grams per gallon. Aircraft piston engines had, generally, ~ twice that (or more). PRESENT day piston engine aircraft fuel is sold as "100LL", & has about 2.12 grams per gallon.
There is a fair amount of information scattered throughout this article of mine, that covers leaded fuels:
There is a good discussion of compression ratios, head milling, cylinder shaving, ETC., here:
9. Fitting other tanks to your airhead; SEATS, ETC.:
Often someone wants to install a fuel tank or seat or both that is not the original version. There is often confusion about what fits what, & what the PROBLEMS are, if any, when fitting some other tank or seat.
There were a number of various /5 tanks; see much further below.
Just before the disc brakes came out on the /6, BMW modified the underside of the fuel tanks to allow for the master cylinder that was coming. The 1973-1/2 (+-) tanks did have the underside cutout for the MC, but the MC did not actually appear until the 1974 models. The first disc brakes were the ATE brakes. There were two types, the swinging type, and a later fixed type that looked somewhat like a Brembo, but with ATE on them. With the front Brembo brakes came the MC on the handlebars. The reason for the bars Master Cylinder is that in the same era, the metal pad under the fuel tank where the ATE MC had been mounted was then used for the ignition module. There are some variations, and minor complexities in this late seventies era. You can find R65 models with twin discs and a bars master cylinder, for instance.
Many questions are often asked about tanks. There were a LOT of variables, and although this is not information pertinent to fitting them (note: all /5 tanks fit all /5)...here ae some details:
The standard capacity 6 gallon tanks had black knee pads.
In 1972 the Toaster tank was, however, standard for the U.S....withOUT pin striping.
Early in 1973 production there were not only the toaster chrome panels, but also pin stripes.
Rubber pads were available for the small tanks...AFTER the chrome panels were discontinued.
Authorities tanks (Police) look like the /6 tanks, with the rubber pads too....but the top has a lid.
/5 tanks have screwed-on Roundels.
1970-1971: a larger tank was available, and had either 6 or 6.3 gallons, the books are unclear as to official value. In 1972-3 this larger tank was no longer stock, but a special order. I think a few were produced that way for 1973.
1970-1971 fuel caps were hinged at the FRONT; 1972-3 caps were hinged at the REAR.
1973-1/2 (+-), had the underneath master cylinder cutout, which was to come in the 1974 models.
Standard tanks had black knee pads.
1972: "Toaster" tanks were STANDARD for U.S. shipped bikes. They had NO pin striping, and this tank WAS available for 1973. The 1972 tank was about one gallon less capacity.
Early 1973 tanks had the chrome panels, but ADDED pin stripes, round the panels. There were rubber pads available for the small tanks after the chrome panels were discontinued.
GS or R100R tanks WILL fit a R80ST, will add 5 liters. A GS tank, on a ST, needs rubber 16-11-2-307-014, plus fuel splitter and hose...or, block off one petcock outlet. With this arrangement of GS on ST, will be a small seat to tank gap.
R100GS tank WILL fit a R80G/S
A PD tank adds 6 liters over stock.
The early R90S had a 24 liter tank, with a RAISED filler cap.
You can modify the later tanks with the flapper restrictors, to increase fuel capacity. Plug the crankcase downpipe in the starter motor area. You can remove all the solenoids, etc...too. Do it properly. See my pulse air article for details: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/pulseair.htm
With minor work, you can interchange these seats: R100S, RS, RT, from 1977-1984; and R100 and R80, T, RT....from 1981-1984.
Seat dimensions: I have only one I've measurements for:
1977 R100/7: 29" front to rear; 12-1/4" widest point; 10" from front lip to seat post.
Don't depend on factory printed information on the tank capacity. When BMW publishes a fuel tank capacity, you ADD the tank & reserve amounts to get the total amounts. I mention this here because the literature has gotten rather corrupted on gas tank volumes.
Because BMW has a month-long vacation shutdown (the factory is closed in August), a year model could have
been produced near the end of the prior calendar year.
10. Throttle and choke (enrichener) cables: This section is not concerned much with what cable fits what bike with what handlebars. See your Dealership, and, see Anton Largiader's website on CABLES. But, here is some information on LENGTHS, etc., that are not always easy to find. Lengths of BMW cables MIGHT be printed on the cable sheath. USUALLY the cable assembly part number IS printed on the cable sheath.
32-73-1-242-135 528 mm long, for 40 mm carbs
32-73-1-454-584 1158 mm long
32-73-1-454-090 1130 mm long, and is the left cable on such as a 1989 G100GS
32-73-1-454-091 1165 mm long, and is the right cable on such as a 1989 G100GS
32-73-2-311-827 1143 mm long, and is the left cable on such as a 91-95 R100PD using 40 mm carbs
32-73-2-311-828 1178 mm long, and is the right cable on such as a 91-95 R100PD using 40 mm carbs
See www.siebenrock.com for more control cable information.
There is an article that gets into the cables more in-depth:
11. Fuel hose:
Fuel hose is made in many sizes. For our motorcycles, fuel hose has been used in stock 'nominal 6 mm' size. Some have used 5/16" & 1/4" SAE American sizes. OUTSIDE diameters vary! American (SAE type) of hose may not fit easily into the crossover area of the airbox, if you have a crossover hose.
Just because a hose has a nominal inside diameter, does not mean it fits, installs, nor 'pulls off' the same as other hoses. This includes hoses with the exact same size specification, & it includes 1/4" & nominal 6 mm hose which are almost exactly the same mathematical size. In other words, while size MAY matter, it also may NOT.
Hoses vary in materials, & how constructed. The hose may remain on the spigot/nipple from friction of the nipple ridges against the mostly unchanged inside diameter. It may ALSO remain on from the nipple ridges & actually making very distinct depressions to match, on the inside of the hose. A fairly stiff hose material can get some goodly ridges, & need a lot of force to remove the hose unless you pressure the END of the hose. Some fuel hoses are made of two types of rubber in the same hose, with distinctly different characteristics.
Hoses made of the wrong material to match gasoline may SWELL, & may come off, or eventually split....but,most fuel hoses seem to harden, and possibly shrink, over time. Some take many years to harden noticeably. I have done plenty of hose testing, including very long term testing, & I posted a summary. There is more information, below:
You CAN get away with most any fuel hose, for awhile. Just how long you want your fuel hoses to last or how long before rubber particles start causing problems, or how original you want them to look. You should consider if your selected hose is easy to fit....particularly if you have a crossover hose at the airbox area.
Hoses should almost never be just and only 'pulled off'. The old fabric covered hoses were made in several types; some would act like the Chinese finger torture toy... if you pulled on them..., it got tighter & tighter. Several modern hoses are somewhat like that too; the hose tightens while pulling on it; until brute force pulls the hose off...or breaks/damages the nipple. The PROPER method of removing a hose is to have a tool on the petcock side (or, better said, at hose end of the hose), & push on the tool while gently pulling on the hose. That eliminates any severe tightening of the hose. H
The original silver colored braided outside fuel hose is still available, from such as Bing Agency in
the U.S. The
new-style BMW black hose from your BMW dealership is a DIN specification hose, fits
better, particularly the
cross-over at the air-cleaner housing, where American hose is too large in
Old Volkswagens used a fuel hose that you may find easily: It is a 7 mm ID hose (x 2.5 mm wall). It was used on 60's and 70's, etc., VW's. The VW number is N-203571; sometimes shown as N203571 or N-203 571.
There are problems with modern
poor-quality, or better-said, characteristics, of fuels.... & many fuel hoses too. When fuel hoses deteriorate, they often release microscopic particles of various rubber & other compounds into the fuel, & these can cause problems with the Airhead's carburetors. THIS INCLUDS overflow of the float bowls due to failure of the float needle & seat to fully shut off the fuel. These problems have WORSENED over the years since ALCOHOLS have been put into fuels (and some of the nastier other stuff). It is not easy to find out what the INNARDS of the multiple layer
fuel hoses are made of. For K bikes, the fuel pump & some immediate hoses, are all INSIDE the fuel tank, covered by fuel. That is an even worse situation; & SUBMERSIBLE RATED hoses are A MUST inside the fuel tank (besides the need for a FI pressure type specification).
In general, fuel hoses used to be made of nitrile rubbers, usually called NBR or acrylonitrile butadiene. These can soften & will deteriorate in the presence of alcohol. Another type of hose is EPDM, which is ethylene propylene diene monomer. This hose will not stand up to most gasoline's, over time. The best fuel hose for an Airhead USED TO BE, but it certainly does not look original, a fluorohydrocarbon elastomer, (FKM), such as Dupont's VITON. It USED TO hold up for many dozens of years, wouldn't harden appreciably. It came in various colors. I can no longer recommend that hose due to changes in composition of pump gasoline's. A hose material that did NOT pass my tests (various solvents, gasoline components, ETC...short term & long term) is Masterflex "FDA Viton" 96412-D.
So: what do you use for fuel hose for your Airhead?
Well, it is your choice. VW and Bing have near-original-look silvery braid looking hose, you may have to change it now and then. BMW has its black colored hose, it holds up fairly well.
The best fuel hose I have ever tested is Tygon type F-4040A. It is not pretty. Holds up to ALMOST everything & does NOT harden too much....even after many years of use. NOTE: I've seen a few exceptions, and have no answers as to why that one sample an owner sent me shrunk more than I had ever seen before, and it also discolored more.
Want to cover it with braid? http://www.mcmaster.com/#catalog/121/848/=10oyb2k
02/06/2004: Add dell.htm
03/14/2004: add #4
10/08/2004: add #5
11/27/2004: add #6
10/28/2005: Expand #2
08/23/2006: Add information on fuels, CR vs octane, and much more.
11/04/2006: more TEL information
04/14/2007: Add #9
04/19/2007: renumber this article from 12 to 12A
06/25/2007: add item 10
11/29/2007: add item 11
01/07/2008: remove bad hyperlink for Heinrich items, was #7
02/18/2010: add more information on fuel hoses
02/16/2011: add link for more information regarding alcohol & fuel tank problems; adding previously blank item 7... and a few minor other things.
07/21/2012: Remove recommendations for Viton hose; add Tygon; add Masterflex FDS Viton comment.
09/28/2012: Add QR code; add language button; update Google code; clean up article a bit & update article with regards to alcohol & deleting mention of MTBE which is no longer used in fuels
04/23/2013: Add more hose information
08/01/2013: Edit tank cleaning section
01/21/2014: A bit more editing on tank cleaning methods; add caution about FI submerged pumps tanks.
07/21/2014: Review again the article-in-process file, final clean-up, final version clarifying cleaning details. NO substantial changes.
09/02/2014: Revise section 9 on tanks extensively, incorporating information previously in another article.
12/22/2015: Revise meta-codes. Narrow the article. Increase font size. Clarify some details. Clean-up.
07/01/2016: Go through entire article. Update metacodes, scripts, fonts, colors, layout, explanations, redundancies, etc.
08/02/2016: change numbering to article 9D.
©Copyright, 2014, R. Fleischer
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