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Photos and tech on EML sidecars, including an early advertising brochure.  Background on EZS.

PLUS: A step by step how-to article regarding suspension parts overhaul.
 
Technical information on the early GT2 (two front hinges) and late model GT2 (single front hinge)
  Many technical items may be correct for earlier models such as Tour-T, ETC.

This article contains some large scans/photos.  Allow time to load if you are on a slow connection.
  

Copyright, 2014, R. Fleischer
EMLsidecar8.htm
sidecar section, item #8


This is a scan of all 4 pages of an old EML brochure, that includes photos of the single front hinge GT2, Midi, Tour, Mini, GT3E, and Speedline.  The rear page of this brochure has the specifications for those; and, the GTE and GT3.

 

 

 


 


Who is EML?...AND......what about EZS? 

EML is   E.ML
Note the period after the E in E.ML.    The letters EML stand for Eigen MakeLij, which means "own making" or "home-made"....and actually refers to their off road sidecars.

E.ML was founded by Hennie Winkelhuis...references to him, mostly in Dutch, can be found by a Google search on the Internet...he was heavily involved in racing, W-Tec, quads, Paris Dakar, etc.    He was born in 1948, and died in May 2007.  

E.ML Engineering Holland BV:
Near as I can tell, their original address was 20 Magnolia Street.
They moved to:
Handlelsweg2; NL-7161 BV Neede           (pronounced NAYDA)
The Netherlands.
 +31-0-545-292-154; fax +31-0-545-292-205.   
  EML is not always very responsive with E-mails, but you can try   info@EMLSIDECAR.com.
    www.emlsidecar.com   

EML has had major financial problems over the years.....I have heard of bankruptcy's, etc.  I don't know the present status as it may change at any time.

Since the above was written, EML as such no longer exists, but is now WTech. The situation for older EML parts is unclear.  I have been told EML and W-Tech are the same, from the EML distributor in the USA.
 

So, who is EZS?
EZS is another manufacturer of quality sidecars and mounts, ETC.
The letters EZS stand for Engbers Zijspan Service.  They are located in Zelhem, Holland.   Albert Engbers "IS"...well "WAS"  EZS.....the founder, the owner, the designer, and the constructor.  In 2008 he passed EZS to his son, Dave Engbers.       e-mail:   info@ezs-sidecar.com

These two manufacturer's, E.ML and EZS, are less than 30 miles apart, but have no ties.  

EML and EZS both made a very considerable part of their sidecars and associated parts for the tugs... such as the suspension parts, subframes, sidecar tubes, suspensions, etc... ...in-house, and made hundreds of sidecars a year. 



There is an EML sidecar group:  http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/EML_SCL/

Snowbum is a Member, Moderator, and Participant.

There is a database being developed, ever so slowly on that website, for parts, etc.


EML has a representative in the USA, called Eurowing.   They are in Hialeah, Florida, website link is below.   They may, in the future, be able to provide SOME parts for the older models.  Don't hold your breath for this.  I think they may NEVER do this. Check back on this website, and the above EML website, for the latest situation.  I will post right here if I hear about, and confirm, that parts are available. My experience with Eurowing is LOUSY.,,,,basically almost completely un-cooperative, downright lying about parts availability and ordering of same, saying things are enroute when they never had any intention of even trying to order parts.   Just terrible non-service.    In all my years of dealing with a lot of companies in the motorcycle industry, they, maybe, are the worst.    http://www.eurowingusa.com/home.html

Bottom of that linked page has phone numbers, etc. Good Luck.  Let me know if you manage to buy ANYTHING for an EML, etc.

****In early April of 2013, on a whim, I decided to contact the above folks again, after several years previously having tried to get parts...this time to, again, see if EML sidecar parts were available.
This is where the message was sent-to; and who initially replied to me:

info@eurowing.com

Lydia Pearce
EurowingUSA
2800 W 84 Street Bay 1
Hialeah,Florida 33018
ph: 786-452-0641
Fax:786-452-0697
www.eurowingusa.com


The final message from them in 7 April 2013 was this, note the name Sali:

"""W-Tec or EML  is the same company , will forward your request to our factory, as soon as we have a reply will let you know .       Regards    Sali  EurowingUSA"""

 

There was NEVER any further contact by Eurowing, in ANY manner.


The meat of this article begins here:
 

My personal sidecar rig is the single-front-hinge GT2 model; it is pulled by an early 1993 model (produced June 1992) BMW K1100LT. 

If you look at the brochure pages at the beginning of this article, you will find dimensions, weight, etc. for the EML sidecar.  I have NOT confirmed the empty weight of the entire sidecar by itself because I never weighed mine separately.  EML published that in the brochure as 123kg, which is 271 pounds. 

I have measured my GT2 for weight at the tire-to-surface point.   The tire was a Nankang N-803 model, about 85% worn, in size 135R15.   The wheel was standard as were suspension parts.  NOTE that weight on the sidecar wheel will also depend on the distance the sidecar wheel is from the centerline of the tug.  For my rig, the center-line of the tug rear tire to the center-line of the sidecar tire, as if there was no wheel lead, is 53-1/2".  For all weight measurements I did, the sidecar, had ~10 pounds of brackets for the seat, etc...... was attached to my tug and the sidecar had approximately 23 pounds of weight (tools, water, etc.) in the sidecar trunk, most of that 23 pounds was against the aft wall of the trunk.  The sidecar interior, including trunk, has heavy industrial/hotel carpeting, perhaps a total of 25 pounds, the windshield is a slightly width shortened full type, and the full heavy duty top I made, with tall roll bar, was on the sidecar.  I measured, on an accurate scale, the weight the tire produced towards the ground (actually, 2.5" above ground due to scale thickness).  It was 249 pounds.  If the scale height did not exist, the weight would be VERY SLIGHTLY higher.  For a second test I had a passenger of 130 pounds sitting in the chair, centered in the chair seat.   The result was 334 pounds. All these results were as expected. 

The wheel lead I use is 13-1/4".


Al Olme noted that some early EML sidecars (80's and earlier?) had an ugly-looking front lamp unit, a combination marker and amber turn signal...bolted to the outside of the sidecar,... it protruded out.  Al says that it was made by Hella, still is available, as 2 per box, under part 003014251, and is not stocked in the USA, but is orderable from P.U.M.A.   Contact "Paul" at (800)-354-3552

Just below
is a series of photos of a very early EML sidecar (this is NOT my sidecar), and of the brake caliper and brake pads used for it.   This brake is the Grimeca, and pads and parts are available from Michael "Mercury" Morse, at www.vintagebrake.com
You can also contact the manufacturer, for information:
http://www.grimeca.it/en/?id=15

NOTE the LAMP on the SIDE of the BODY TOWARDS the front: 
 Al Olme noted that some early EML sidecars (80's and earlier?) had that ugly-looking front lamp unit, a combination marker and amber turn signal...bolted to the outside of the sidecar,... it protruded out as shown.  Al says that it was made by Hella, still is available, as 2 per box, under part 003014251.  An internet search will find sources.

           

 

 

TWO photos of an early GT2 (TWO front hinges)
This EML sidecar opens without the front cover
purposely being on an angle as it is raised.

                                                                         


Everything following from this point is of my own later model ONE hinge GT2

This stock EML hinge is purposely designed so the sidecar
opening part swings slightly away from the
motorcycle.  A close look at the hinge will
show that its central pin is NOT at 90 to the
sidecar body, thus the opened body top swings
away from the motorcycle.

 

The photo below shows the quite weatherproof top
I built from scratch.  The windows are removable
...or, can be rolled up.   There is a stiffening metal
flat thin bar going fore-aft, centered at the top, to keep the
canvas top from striking the head of the passenger
as speed increases (pressure created by oncoming
wind is downwards on the top).
Note my particular front windshield where it stops at the side.
The top was designed and likely way overbuilt,
with many stress-relieving joints/reinforcements.
The top is likely even more over-built on how the rear
bottom area is Velcro'd over TWO lengths of the
bottom flap (that you cannot see in this photo),
that wraps under and onto the fiberglass top.  
I wanted this top waterproof, and UNable to be
blown off at any speed and wind condition.  There
is also a FORWARD flap, with snaps, at this REAR
area.  Way overbuilt, perhaps.
The top material is the highest grade of a premium
boat cover material.   The amount of work that
went into this top was excessive...but it has
certainly held up and performed well, and still
looks almost like the day I finished it, years ago. 
It remains waterproof in a downpour.

I have a separate article with other views of this top
........and of other folk's EML tops:
EMLTOPS.htm


 


Photos of my SIDECAR wheel:

TIRES for the sidecar are available from such as
Coker Tire Company. Presently I am using a
135R15 Firestone F560 tire. It came from Coker,
was very freshly made, and it replaced the well-worn
Nankang N-803 of the same size, that was on the
sidecar when I purchased it.  Coker owns the rights
and moulds for these Firestone tires, and others.

 

In the BELOW photo, this is the EZS rim used on my K1100LT tug.
Note the gradual slope on one side of the inside of the rim.

The original tires on the tug, when I purchased the sidecar rig, were
Firestone F590  165-70 R14, which are hard to find in the USA. 
I found one, and did replace the rear tire once.  I am presently
using a Mastercraft P175-70 A/S-IV on the tug rear, which has worked
well for me. That size MAY not easily fit the front (?), due to the limited clearance
between fender and tire, but I will eventually probably try it; and, if need-be,
modify the fender bracketry.

For those Canadians who do not want to, or cannot, deal with Coker, I have been
told that Firestone F560 tubeless blackwall radial tires are available in Canada:
                       Sylmar Auto Ville (http://www.sylmar.ca/live/sav.html)
                       661 Stevens Street
                       Hawkesbury, Ontario
                       Canada
                       K6A 3K5


PHOTO OF MY TUG'S REAR RIM....this IS NOT THE SIDECAR WHEEL RIM!!!


This is a photo showing where the sidecar AXLE fits.


I am not fond of how EML designed the inner wheel hub seal fitment. I think it too narrow, for instance; but if the seal is installed correctly, it works OK...but re-greasing could be done at longer intervals, with a better sealing surface (wider would help, as would a flange of some sort).   I have not yet made the decision to modify for such.
For the stock setup, I suggest using a 7mm THICKNESS seal.  More on the seals, etc., later herein.

The entire suspension is mounted to the EML frame, via THREE bolts. These 10 mm bolts are grade 10.9 which is appropriate. Note that standard torque for a 10.9 grade 10 mm bolt is 53 foot-pounds.   The bolt threads are 1.5 mm pitch, the length is 70 mm.  Use Nyloc or similar nuts on all three bolts. The 3 holes in the welded 'tubes' on the EML frame fit these 10 mm bolts, but the heavy metal bracket that contains the pivot, etc., has approximately 12 mm holes.   That means, depending on the precision with which EML did this bracket and frame tubes, there may be some TOE-IN adjustment available by loosening these 3 bolts, and moving the bracket slightly.  Thus one might be able to adjust toe-in at the suspension itself, and not just by the chair-to-tug fastenings/struts.  

I set my toe-in to between 5/16" to 3/8", with the rider on the seat, and no sidecar passenger.     If you have loosened or removed the three-bolt mount, be sure to check the toe-in, before final tightening.   I found the in-board bolt installed from the TOP, which means to remove the assembly, one needed to remove the tub!  I cut the bolt, and installed a new one from the bottom.  Yes, that is theoretically not quite as safe.   The Toe-In for this type of sidecar rig, with car tires, should be, in MY opinion, in the neighborhood of 1/4 to 1 inch. I highly suggest that if you are beginning the alignment setup, with no prior history, that you use 1/2" initially.

The pivot shaft (and pivot bearing) will probably frustrate you a bit, so proceed slowly and methodically.  By the time you try to remove the shaft from the bearing, it may be rusted and difficult to remove.  Soak in a penetrating solvent such as PB Blaster or Kroil, or, better yet, 50-50 mixture of ATF and acetone, for a day or three (add some of the mixture now and then), and use a very sturdy puller...the end of the shaft has a nice little hole for your puller center bolt.  The pivot contains a sealed two-row ball bearing, probably FAG type 529891C.  This bearing is probably cataloged as 60 mm, but is likely 60.03 mm in diameter. I installed a Federal Mogul (Timken or SKF) equivalent, #513116.  I think there are several equivalents, including a brand seldom seen in the USA, Breda CR1863.    EML has fitted this bearing with, in my estimation, too tight a fit into the pivot housing, requiring a quite powerful hydraulic press, so be very sure the pivot cavity is quite well cleaned and smooth, etc., before installing a new bearing.    Chamfer the pivot entrance edge to accept the bearing, which MUST be installed SQUARELY to the pivot. The bearing is pressed into the pivot area from one side; so must be removed to one side. The bearing will almost surely require the mentioned strong hydraulic press to remove, but a new one can be installed in a large bench vise; be VERY careful to begin that SQUARELY! Use oil, and use soft square jaws on the vise. Before the new bearing is fully home again clean the last area it will be pressed into, and use the old bearing shell as the driver for that last little bit.  NOTE that if you loosen the cotter key and then loosen that castle nut,....this will relieve pressure on the 30 mm shaft going through the pivot area.  You then will be UNable to retighten it if yours was like mine, as the body of the sidecar is in the way of getting a large allen wrench into the inside recess of this shaft...you will then have to remove the entire suspension setup.  Because of this I suggest NOT loosening the castle nut unless your pivot bearing is bad. I also suggest not trying to defeat the design by drilling and adding a couple of roll pins, NOR, welding.    The bearing was used on a number of cars including old Volvo's; Fiat's, and Yugo's, ETC. 

The 30 mm shaft may be somewhat corroded, so clean it up quite well.   It is a MILD press-fit into the pivot bearing.    There is a washer on the inside to take up the space of the pivot cavity inner end wall thickness.  There was a funny washer on the outside of mine...see the Plate notation in the photo below.  You do need some sort of flat washer here.  I have no idea why the tang of that washer had a small drilled/tapped hole.  The nut need not be grossly tight, this is not some sort of preload adjustment, so it should be tightened reasonably, then a NEW cotter key installed.

In the above photo, my stock EML-supplied caliper is a Brembo type F05, and it is actually what is called a RIGHT caliper. 
If rotated, and reversed, it would look like the RIGHT photo below. 
 In the above photo, due to the closeness of the inside of the 15" EML wheel, the caliper bleeder valve has been ground down.  That makes it unusable for proper bleeding, so a proper bleeder valve is inserted in place of that one, when bleeding this brake....this CAN BE a pain in the butt!...you could get air in the caliper.  I suggest that if you have this sort of ground-down bleeder valve, that you have someone put a wee bit of SLOW pressure on the brake pedal as you remove the ground bleeder and install your proper bleeder valve, do your system bleeding, then reverse the procedure.   The bleeder valve is a standard 6 mm threaded type but with 8 mm hex.  I have thought about modifying the disc and caliper mounting, but have not done it...yet.  I have also obtained a short version of a bleeder valve, which I am going to try, perhaps modify (I got TWO just for this), and see if that will work...on my 2015 bleeding.

SOME Grimeca calipers and pads are interchangeable with Brembo,  but there is no problem finding Brembo parts, from such as vintagebrake.com


Left F08 caliper    "Right" F08 caliper    
Note that these are F08 caliper photos, as I did not have similar good photos for the actual F05 caliper on the sidecar.  F08 and F05 look similar to each other, the F08 being bigger.  Be SURE to read onwards a few paragraphs, about the left, right, etc....

 

Caliper and Pads and Rebuilt Kits:

As noted, the Brembo caliper on my GT2 is Brembo model F05, which has 94 mm mounting centers; and mine has a casting number on it:   20.2677.00.  Mine has a model number
stamped on the outer face:  19C7

This caliper has 32 mm opposed pistons, and is the same as on some Moto-Guzzi models such as V65, V50;  etc.  This model caliper was very popular and was used on many vehicles.  The caliper is available in both a right and left hand arrangement, so be SURE if you replace an entire caliper you get the correct one.  As noted, the one I have is a RIGHT HAND (RH) type.   Photos of calipers on the Internet may be confusing, if the view is from the back-side, instead of the front-side; as the EML mounting is typically reversed from Internet photos.  The F08 photos above are from the front-side.
The F08 in the photo is, as noted, almost identical LOOKING caliper to the F05, but it has 108 mm mounting centers and 38 mm opposed pistons.

If you are going to purchase a caliper, have it next to the photos....or, better yet, take to a dealership or photograph it for vintagebrake.com.... and be sure to get the proper handed one that matches yours!  LOOK CAREFULLY!!!...many have had that left and right thing confuse them.

NOTE:  The casting number is not necessarily the same number as the factory caliper number.  As an example of this, the factory numbers for a right hand standard F05 is 20.2676.40; and for the left hand standard it is 20.2676.41.  The factory also has a Gold Line, using the 10.3677.xx numbers, and there is a special LH narrow type, that uses a thin 3.8 mm disc thickness, as 20.4366.21.  So, be careful with what you order.  A good brake supply specialist knows the details.
Michael Morse is a good source of information...and parts:
http://www.vintagebrake.com
(209) 533-4346
info@vintagebrake.com

The seal and rebuild kit for the F05 caliper is widely available, it is Brembo 120.2799.10.
   Brembo seals are NOT compatible with silicone fluids!  Use DOT3 or DOT 4, ONLY.   Brembo calipers have always used hydraulic line fitting threads of 1.0 x 10 mm.  Do not mistake my words here for the bleeder valve.


Pads:   Really good C.O.F. (Coefficient Of Friction) organic pads are the Ferodo 'Platinum' pads...these are especially good with cast iron rotors, such as EML used.

Unconfirmed by me is that pads may be for REAR brake for above Guzzi models and others.  However, pads that were reported to fit and work fine were identified as being marked (by all these numbers) on the package:   KBA61084   400  Platinum   DP601   FA47.       Package also seemed to indicate Ferodo FD3207P   4541029    I think that the package numbering might have been too difficult to read, and the real number was FDB207P    the P standing for the "Platinum" pads.
NOTE:  F05 pads are available in numerous formulations.  You want one compatible with YOUR disc, which is probably cast iron like mine was.

From another source, supposedly at EML, came Ferodo numbers  FD7266 (might be 072686)...but might not be for this GT2 model....and I can't find those numbers.   Nor can I confirm the Ferodo number D346GG nor Brembo 07.2686.13; which might be for an earlier model caliper??...or the F05???  More research needed here.

NOTE:   for most folks, the C.O.F. and amount of braking on a sidecar can be widely different without problems.    For those who ride vigorously and spiritedly, and use the sidecar brake by itself for turning; or, have problems stopping in a straight line, it is more important.     Sidecar conversions can have widely differing rear and front braking systems on the tug and sidecar.  EML uses hydraulic brakes.  Some folks plumb the sidecar brake INTO the tug system, front or rear or combined; or, have a separate pedal, often to a MC that couples only to the EML disc caliper.  Because there are such widely differing systems, including some with ABS or linked, etc., I am hesitant to say to "only" use the Ferodo Platinum.   I think that it WOULD BE best to use just that pad, and if braking is TOO MUCH on the sidecar, and cannot be adjusted lower by whatever other means, that a modification to the sidecar pads is probably easy to do and is likely to be very effective.    For most of you, I doubt you will have any problems and not need to modify the pads.
 


Master Cylinders:

NOTE:   My tug is a BMW K1100LT, which, as delivered from BMW, comes with a 12 mm Magura-made rear brake Master Cylinder.  That MC is too small in bore (piston size) for proper brake pedal movement when the rear braking system is plumbed into the EML disc brake.   The Magura MC was, therefore, changed to 16 mm.   EML did this, as well as EZS.   I had a rather difficult time finding out about the Magura details, so I thought I'd list them here. 

NOTE that EML has their OWN master cylinders, and what you see here is NOT necessarily what is on YOUR sidecar rig.

Keep in mind that the information that follows is for MY rig.

Magura part number for the MC is 0131411.  It is also called a 700.33.    Magura no longer makes the 0231410, also called 700.32 (16 mm-L). The only difference is, AFAIK, the angle of the inlet for the reservoir.  The 16 mm Magura was used not only by EML and EZS, but by KTM on their motorcycles.   For all practical purposes these master cylinders are nearly identical.   Either can be made to fit.

Master Cylinders from Magura are made in three piston sizes:  12 mm, the 700.4, probably what BMW used originally; 13 mm, the 700.12, BLACK, as used on the K100 (It is possible that this size MIGHT work nicely, with added braking, on an EML sidecar, but I have not tested that theory); and the 16 mm 700.33 or 700.32 which is silver colored.   Repair kits for any of them are available from Magura.  For all these MC, the hydraulic line threads are M10 x 1.   For all these MC, Magura says the 'hub' is 12 mm, and the stroke is 12 mm.   I measured the mounting centers of mine at 45 mm.  

Below are two photos; one of the MC; the other photo is of the extension pin that fits between the MC piston and the foot pedal rounded tip special screw.  In inspecting the sidecar rig after it was delivered to me, I found I had problems with my MC.  I replaced it; and, the old extension piece was buggered, as was the BMW foot pedal rounded tip special screw, 34-31-1-451-885.   I still have no part number for the extension piece as in the photo...it is not, per Magura USA, a standard part from them.  However, Magura of Germany says that the part is in the rebuild kits.  BMW does not list the extension pin separately, but its fiche shows that it is very likely part of the rebuild kit.    The below photo has notes on it as I sent it to someone for help in identifying that extension piece.   

***When someone replaces a BMW master cylinder, they often just throw away that extension piece, as the new MC comes with one.   See your friendly BMW dealership, they may be able to give you the extension piece if you need one, from their old box of trash parts.   I recently got my hands on some worn-out stock 12 mm BMW rear Magura cylinders.  These had the extension piece that is in the photo, below.   They DO come with the cylinder from BMW. 

NOTE that the 12 mm cylinder has a smaller bore INSIDE the piston where this extension piece fits!   It will work, but is not as nice as if a large diameter extension piece was available....and, so far, that is likely to be found ONLY in the Magura 16 mm repair kit!


See the larger photo above, and the "O-ring...why?", in red that I put on the photo.   I think it MAYBE was used so the extension pin would properly fit and be captive in the BMW 12 mm piston diameter MC.   So far, no proof that the Magura 16 mm rebuild kit comes with a larger extension piece.


Details of the hub &suspension & information on replacing wheel bearings & seals
 (information on overhauling the shock/spring unit is later in this article):


As you can see from the photos, the brake disc mounts to the hub using 8 bolts.
The outside diameter of my disc measured 198 to 200 mm, and the EML specification sheet says 200 mm, so that is fine, and looking at where the caliper fits with its pads sweeping the disc area, the disc could be OK at 7-3/4" diameter (197 mm). The disc thickness, used condition, was 0.175", which is 4.445 mm.  I suspect they were 4.5 mm when new; a standard size for many discs used on bikes.

Inner seal is 32 x 52 x 7 mm; do not use 6 mm, see next section for why.   Seal numbers could be Timken TC12507 or 702901.
Outer seal is 30 x 52 x 7 mm.  Seal numbers could be Timken 702880, National S-11510, etc.
Bearings I installed are both 6205-C3.    The particular bearings I used were made by SKF, and were 6205-2RSJEM, in C-3 grade.   Any QUALITY 6205-C3 bearing can be used.  Do NOT use bearings from China, Russia, etc.   Whether you use an open or sealed bearing is up to you.

NOTE:  When I removed the old bearings, I found the inner bearing to be 6205-2RS1/C  HT51.  This is a sealed type.   I found the outer (wheel side) bearing to be 6205-2Z/C HT51.


R/R wheel hub bearings and seals (if just cleaning, lubricating, and replacing seals, there is no need to heat the hub):

Remove the wheel/tire (btw, I never tighten beyond 50 Nm when installing).  Remove the two 13 mm allen bolts holding the caliper to the suspension.  Lift off the caliper from the disc, and set the caliper slightly to the rear, being careful not to kink the hose. Do NOT operate the brake pedal or lever, as case may be, whilst the caliper is out of the disc.  If you worry about this, insert something into the caliper between the pads. 

Remove the cotter key at the tub side of the axle at the castellated nut.   Put a heavy box-end wrench on the 1-1/4th inch castellated nut (actual size seems to be 31.75 mm, so you could also try a 31 or 32 mm wrench).   Using a a large adjustable wrench (or 24 mm or 15/16" open end wrench) on the axle double-D flatted area, unscrew the axle/nut.  If the assembly is extremely tight, you might have problems gaining proper leverage, in which case you might consider having the inside wrench rest on the rear suspension area, as a support-stop.   With the axle out, you can now remove the hub/disc assembly    Remove the old seals, using a wood support and a broad screwdriver.  AVOID nicking/scraping the hub bore when doing that.   Discard the seals; although if there is a part number on yours, you might want to write that down for reference.   Inspect the hub bearing fit entrance area. 

If replacing bearings:  If any metal is proud into the bore, fix that first, so the bearing, which is a close fit, can be easily removed in the following procedure.   Heat the hub on an electric hot plate.  The hot plate should have a metal covering or plate, don't use it just with the electric coils showing.  Set the outer, aluminum flange wheel mounting area DOWN onto the hot plate.  The proper amount of heat is until a wetted finger sizzles when touched to the top aluminum hub where the bearing enters.   You can put a dry towel over the unit to help heating. Using leather or cloth gloves, and if need be a flat end drift and very small hammer (carefully, to avoid nicking or scraping the bore), push or lightly hammer the bearings out from the other side; repeat for both.  They might even fall out.  Don't loose the inner sleeve.   

Allow the hub assembly to cool.    Clean the counter-bore very carefully.  Use rags and evaporating solvents.  Don't leave anything at the sharp lower corner of the counterbore.   If there is not a very smooth and SMALL radius for the bearing entry, on both sides of the hub assembly, make them.  Be SURE the counter-bore and hub bore is clean after this.   Clean the inner sleeve.

Find something, perhaps an old large socket, that is a SLIGHTLY smaller diameter than the counter-bore, that the hub assembly can rest on, when cooling. 

Chill the new bearings in your freezer.   Reheat the hub, exactly as before.  At the sizzle temperature (of the aluminum hub area where the bearing enters), using leather or cloth gloves, drop the new bearing into the top hub, squarely, and it should slide right in without any pressure.  If you do not do this squarely, the bearing will not slide right in.  Keeping the bearing in place with a finger or two of one hand, turn the hub over, and install the SLEEVE, and then the other bearing.  Immediately, while the hub is still at sizzle temperature, place the hub with its new bearings and the sleeve, over the old large socket that fits into the counterbore area, and set the entire assembly on a table to cool.   Be sure the top bearing is seated.    The outer hub should be UP, disc DOWN.  The bearings should have remained FULLY installed. BE SURE that they are.   Let the hub cool to at least handling temperature, or to room temperature.   Then set the hub on the bench, either side up is OK from now on.

If the bearings are OK, and are of the greasable type, force a good quality disc brake type bearing grease into them.

Installing the seals:
BE SURE you use the CORRECT size seals on the correct side!  The INNER seal has the 32 mm center; the OUTER seal is 30 mm.  Double check yourself before starting the seal work, and during it!  Install the outer seal so that it is flush, or not more than a tiny bit below flush.

NOTE on the inner seal thickness:
The counterbore depth on the suspension (inside) of the hub is LESS than that depth at the outer seal.  When you install a 7 mm seal on the inside of the hub, that seal will be slightly proud of the surface.  For a perfect flat fit, you could use a 6 mm seal.  HOWEVER, you will probably find that 6 mm seals are not all that common, AND, you will probably find that the 7 mm seal will put the sealing LIP in a better position for the suspension seal lip area.  Because of this, I recommend you use 7 mm seals.

Place fresh grease liberally into a seal's open end.  Install the seal, using an old socket that is a just a wee bit smaller in diameter than the seal outside diameter.    Install the seal EVENLY and SQUARELY, open greased end towards the new bearing.  Lubricate the seal lip with grease.  Do the other side with the other seal in the same manner.   Be very careful not to nick the seal inner lip(s).

The hub is now almost ready to be reinstalled.   If need be, polish, with very very fine grit sandpaper the suspension lip...be sure its outer edge is not sharp. If the lip is gritty, it will wear out the new seal in short order, so clean the suspension lip and bore area.  Clean up the axle if need be; everything must not have proud metal, be smooth, be clean, and not too sharp-edged, so things will push together smoothly.  Be sure the suspension lip is smooth, and greased lightly, as is the axle over its length, including the seal area next to the double D flatted area!!

Install the hub and GREASED axle slowly and carefully, to avoid seal damage.  With no sharp edges, you will be fine.   Install the castellated nut rather tightly, and align the axle whilst doing this, so that the NEW cotter key can be properly installed (remember that you have to be able to bend one tang of the cotter key back over the axle end or the nut).  

Reassemble the caliper, etc. to the suspension.  Inspecting the caliper pads, and caliper pistons, etc., for dirt, etc., is a good idea before assembling.  DO NOT KINK THE HYDRAULIC HOSE, not even for an instant....you can ruin the tiny inside plastic tubing.

 

Cautions:
1.  Do NOT press the bearings out, or in, with the WHEEL hub cold.  This is STANDARD procedure for alloy hubs.
2.  Don't forget the inner spacer when installing the new bearings. If you do forget it is not a big deal, the hub is usable without it.
3.  You can use sealed or non-sealed bearings.  If you use non-sealed bearings, be sure they are well packed with a quality non-fibrous wheel bearing grease before the seals are installed, with extra grease in the cavity area.
4.  Use grade C3 bearings. Do NOT use tighter tolerance bearings.
5.  Be sure the area of the axle where it fits into the outer seal is smooth....be very careful that it is, so the axle, lightly greased, will pass into the seal without nicking the sealing lip(s).
6.  Be sure that the lipped area of the suspension is smooth.


Shock absorber & Spring unit:

Numbers below (#x and #xx) refer to my below photo of the disassembled unit

Note:  This shock absorber is more sophisticated than it appears at first glance after disassembly.  It is velocity sensitive, and stiffens differently than you might (??) expect, in a situation where there may be multiple quick irregularities in the road.

I will be describing the shock absorber as having a top and a bottom.   The shock absorber is installed with the Adjustor (18) slanted DOWNward, so that end is the "bottom", as I describe things here.  

The steel body of the shock absorber unit is item marked as #16.
***NOT SHOWN in the photo is a removable round steel tube located inside that #16 body.  That steel tube has two small holes at one end, that end faces item #18.  The tube is approximately 4.1" in length and approximately 1.34" in outside diameter.   When assembling the shock absorber, it would be a good idea to assemble the steel tube to the upper components, and then put the upper components into item #18 as one assembly.  This would avoid a potential problem (which I did not look into) of the upper components 'hanging-up' on the removable internal steel tube.

The top eye (11) is fitted, as is the bottom eye, with a stiff rubber part that has a steel center sleeve, & it is via this sleeve that bolts pass through to mount the shock unit to the sidecar suspension & frame.   The top eye (11) has fitted to it a hard-chromed (for long wear) steel ROD.  Unless the rod is damaged, there is NO reason to try to remove it from the top eye (11).  I have NO idea where one might obtain a rod.  If damaged, an original rod probably could be ground and re-plated with hard chrome.

The shock absorber assembly has an owner-adjustment; that is the aluminum bottom part (18), hereinafter called the Adjustor,  that has the decorative vertical hand-grooves.  While many motorcycle shock absorber spring units are adjusted by a hooked spanner wrench, that is not so on this EML shock.  This part is meant to be adjusted by one's hand....probably easier with the suspension extended,.... that means jacking the main sidecar frame (not suspension), until the wheel is just barely off the ground.   This item (18) has a rubber O-ring both inside (in a groove for it, item #1) the lower area of this Adjustor, that serves almost no purpose except to keep dirt out of the internal threads and to help resist rotation slightly; and a similar O-ring above it, item #15, same idea.  I believe the threads, as well as these O-rings and #14 mating surfaces should be lubricated with silicone grease during assembly, to make the Adjustor work more smoothly with less effort, over long periods of time, and the silicone grease probably will greatly increase the life of the O-rings.  

The Adjustor (18) has finely pitched internal threads, mating to hidden threads (when assembled) on the outside of the shock absorber body item 16.  Numerous turns of this Adjustor can be made.  The adjustment is for preload on the SPRING, to set ride height for weight being carried.  The Adjustor does NOT adjust the shock absorber internals.     The Adjustor (18) is internally threaded nearly its entire length, so it can be adjusted fairly high, as well as quite low.    Item #14 sits just above this Adjustor (8), and between them is one of the O-rings, item #15.  Item #14 is lightly close fitting, but movable, on the shock body (16). More about item #14 well below, in more than one place.
 

In order to remove the spring, you do PROBABLY DO NOT NEED A SPRING COMPRESSOR!......the Adjustor (18) can be lowered substantially.  If need be, thumb pressure on the top area will release the top plate....this Keeper/Top Perch (#12) can then be removed.  It has a lower lip, so #18 must be rather fully loosened.  
When re-installing #18, I suggest it be adjusted to engage enough item 16 threads so that the bottom-most area of 18 will properly clear any associated brackets.  NOTE the flattened area on #18, I believe the factory did that so that the bracketry would not contact #18, as the suspension moved.  Pay attention to this during installation.

Spring (13):  
    free standing length:   7.75" 
    coils diameter:             0.300" as stock, chrome plated
    outside diameter:        2.325"

Shock absorber over-all length, as assembled, center of eye #17 to center of eye #11,  12-3/16" approximately.

You MAY have to fashion some sort of a press, if the EML spring on your shock is longer than the one on mine.... to allow you to remove the keeper (#12).... so the spring (#13) can be removed.  Do NOT scratch or nick the piston ROD!!    
I did NOT have to use a press, as when I unscrewed #18 far enough but nowhere near the end of threads, nor even near covering any of the eye....I could press with my fingers on the upper spring area, and remove the keeper relatively easily.   

NOTE!...Spring (#13) fits INto the top of item #14.   There MAY be a difference between one end of YOUR spring and the other end, be sure you fit the spring so it SEATS on the LIP of #14.  See note later on my making of a replacement spring perch (14).

After the spring (13) is removed, you can test the shock unit by hand pressure, moving the eye ends (11 and (17), towards and away from each other, at varying amounts of rod depth and speed.   Do this with the Adjustor end (8) DOWNward, and the unit vertical.     When a shock absorber fails, it usually does so from fluid leaking by the top seals (9 and 9A), and the resulting failure is usually a fairly 'dead' position, easily felt, for small or modest up and down movements of the piston ROD.  Move the piston ROD to near fully-out, and middle, and near fully-in positions, checking EACH POSITION with a short movement.  Move it over the full range in one motion too.  Dead spots are NOT acceptable.  A good shock unit has NO dead spots over any part of its normal travel.   The major reason for a dead spot on this type of shock absorber is a lack of enough oil.  Since the shock's normal position with a light load in the sidecar is with the shock unit nearly fully extended, be sure to test in that condition too.


 You may need to fashion a tool to unscrew the top plate (8), which has 4 holes for a sturdy pin wrench.  Fashion a proper tool; this is NOT the place to use a hammer and a round punch.   The top plate (8) may be very tight.   If your pin wrench will not loosen it, place the shock unit in your freezer overnight, first...the aluminum top plate (8) should shrink more than the steel body, easing its removal.   When I reassembled the shock absorber, I made sure the inside and outside threads were clean and dry, then I put a light smear of Hylomar sealant onto the CAP threads (NOT BODY THREADS), letting the sealant set up a few minutes in the air,  before tightening it with the pin wrench.  I did this to give added protection against any oil leakage.   

The top plate (8) has TWO oil seals (9, 9A), and they are NOT the same seals!  The top cap is counterbored at each end, where the two seals (9, 9A) are installed.  I measured the approximate size of these seals and of the counterbore areas.  The two counterbore areas are NOT the same diameter.   The lower bore has a diameter of 0.745" (18.9 mm); the top bore (this  is the bore that contains the seal one sees from the outside after the unit is all assembled) is 0.710" diameter (18.03 mm).   The chromed piston ROD is 0.470" diameter (11.94 mm).   I inspected the existing seals.   They are squarely pressed-in, perhaps helped by heating the top plate (8).

The TOP seal had the name ERIKS on it, with numbering of      12 18 3.5 - 5      exactly as shown to the left here.   Obviously this means a seal of 12 mm central hole, 18 mm outside diameter; not sure of the 3.5, but 5 mm for mounting width is correct.  This seal was unusual in that it had a projection upwards, tapered, that would help keep filth out of the shock unit.  THAT may have been the ""3.5""  .  I was totally unable to get Eriks distributor or factory to respond in my request for information and availability on this seal.   For that matter, I could not identify the exact Merkel seal below, either, with distributors.   The numbering is too old, or, foreign, or?? 

The LOWER seal had a number  S9251+ on it, and mfr was Merkel.  The lower counterbore diameter was 0.745" (18.9mm).  Thus, I suspect we need a 19 mm OD seal, with a 12 mm inside diameter, 5 mm width.   NOTE that these seals do NOT have the same style of lip, etc.

Not being able to locate the original seals, and NOT being happy with the lower seal in any event, I decided to install standard industrial lipped seals, of the type backed up on one side, with a 'garter spring'.  These only work FAIR...and I may replace them at some future date, modifying the cover, item 8, if I have to.

The TOP seal I used was:   12 x 18 x 3 mm  type HMS4R; AND, this seal was installed with the garter spring, open side, DOWNWARD.   I could not find a seal like the original, which had a tapered section going upward....that is, it would stick well up towards the spring eye.  A 5 mm or even wider seal could be used at the top.

The BOTTOM seal I used was:   12 x 19 x 5 mm  type HMS4R.   When selecting a seal, note that this seal can not be too much wider than 5 mm as the SLIDER has a projection at its top, that fits into the bottom seal cavity very slightly.  The direction for seal's installation could be debated.   For best sealing against pressure from the oil/air inside the shock, the seal would have its garter downward.  Upward might seal better against dirt.

Many other types of seals could be used.    I installed the seals with the top cap hot, with a trace of rubber cement around the outside diameter of the seals, but I think the seals could be installed with the top cap at room temperature and without any cement.   Seals in many widths are available.  3 mm, 4.5 mm, 5 mm, and even wider.  Nitrile would be a good material for the seals.  Seals are usually manufactured as 18 or 19 mm, but they are, in fact, made very slightly larger, so they are a press fit.  Mentioned here in case you see your 18 seal being 18.059, the 19 at 19.23...or some such.

 I hoped these seals would provide total sealing against oil leakage and from outside dirt and filth.  They leaked, over time and miles, some.

After you remove the top cap (8) with a pin wrench and have removed the internal assembly, you will find that the steel shock absorber body (16) contains a precision INternal sleeve, in its lower body area.   It is inside this sleeve that the piston (3) and other parts operate.

Describing the eye (11)/ROD
assembly from the top;....the eye (11) with its steel sleeve surrounded by rubber, has the long piston ROD going downward.  On that ROD are located the following parts, continuing here going downward:
    a.  A large rubber bumper (10) that prevents the ROD assembly from bottoming out in the lower
         steel body (16) of the shock absorber.   This bumper (10) is about 3.85" in diameter, has its
         rounded nose end DOWNWARD, and its width is about 0.95". Its inside diameter is such that
         it can move with slight pressure on the rod.
    b.  The threaded aluminum top cap (8) you unscrewed to gain access, that has the 4 pin holes.
         This part contains internal seals, 9 and 9A, for which replacements are NOT YET clear to
          me.  ****I am not happy about the sealing of the parts I used here, and may modify the top at
          some later date for a different type of seal.
   
c.  A rubber O-ring (7), of approximately 1.222" inside diameter, 1.425" outside diameter, 0.095"
         thickness.  These numbers do not exactly add up, that is, twice the thickness plus the ID is
         not the OD...due to inability to measure the old one exactly.    This rubber O-ring (7) fits in a
         machined area of the SLIDER, and I make note here that this machined area is similar to the
         one at the other end of the SLIDER, but the LOWER end of the SLIDER does NOT have an
         O-ring fitted; AND  the LOWER end of the SLIDER has three notches machined
         into the outer edge; AND, a small hole in the lower flange.   Do NOT! install the
         slider upside down!!!
The TOP flange of the SLIDER has a 0.744" round projection at the
         center...that fits into the top cap slightly.    This particular top O-ring is mickey-mouse, in MY
         estimation, as to how it mounts...as nothing is there to keep it from slipping off the top of 
         the SLIDER and moving inwards.  Be careful upon assembly, after which it will be OK.
    d.  There is a harder rubber bumper (6) of 0.903" outside diameter; 0.20" width, fitted just below
          the SLIDER.  Its inside diameter is such that it moves relatively freely on the rod.
    e.  A steel plate (5), domed on one side, with the FLAT side UP.
    f.  TWO very thin flexible steel plates (#4).   DO NOT remove one to reduce shock stiffness, as
         the remaining one will crack and break up eventually.  IF you have a broken one, you CAN
         assemble the shock with just ONE, but it may break sooner than later.  I haven't any idea
         where to get more of these steel plates (#4).  I surely would like to have new ones for my
         own shock unit.  If you locate a source, do let me know.

    g.  A piston (3) of alloy material, containing not just its center mounting hole, but 6 surrounding
         holes.  The FLAT end of this piston must be UP.  In that position, a nut (2), 13 mm wrench
         size, is in the lower counter-bored end of the piston.   I used Loctite BLUE on cleaned
         threads.   Note that item 4 covers some of each outside edge hole; reducing the diameter of
         item #4 will change the shock action.


It is CRITICAL that parts ...especially the steel plates and piston...be installed correctly, in the correct order!  NOTE ESPECIALLY the fitment of the domed washer (#5), the DOME fits DOWNward against the steel plates (#4)!

 

Item #14, the spring perch, has a step in it to fit into the spring.  The step locates the spring concentrically to the shock absorber body, so that the spring can not move sideways and touch the body, where it would wear the body, but more importantly, would make squeaking noises. 

****Item 14 seemed to be very hard rubber & was in poor condition on my shock absorber, & fit much too tightly to the body, particularly the OD threads area.  If yours is OK, you should make sure it slides easily onto the shock body, making item #18 easier to adjust.  I threw away item 14 & made a new one out of aluminum on my lathe.  I put a slight relief on its underside for the #15 O-ring, although this is hardly necessary.  Item 15 could be eliminated. 

Item #2 is a 13 mm hex nut.
Item #4 consists of TWO thin flexible steel washer-plates, and TWO are needed, for additional strength and proper valving.
 

This shock absorber works in BOTH directions, and its action in those directions is NOT equal, by design.  That is, the 'bound-rebound' are quite different.   The unit is also velocity sensitive.   The fit of the piston (3) to the inside lower body (16) sleeve ensures that relatively little oil under mild road irregularities will go through the piston.   That is controlled by the thin steel flexible discs.  The notches in the aluminum Slider, together with the lower steel plates (4, 5) and piston (3) holes, and the #4 plates, all determine many of the characteristics of the shock absorber (together with the diameter of the piston, etc).  

Shock Absorber fluid quantity and recommendations, etc:

The oil should be of a type meant for shock absorbers or suspensions.  If you do not use such an oil, it could foam-up during use.   It should have a REASONABLY GOOD Viscosity Index, which means that it does not change thickness too rapidly with temperature changes.  Shock units are affected not only by ambient temperatures, but from temperature developed internally:  as the road surface becomes more and more irregular, the shock unit is moving fluid internally through its passageways/orifices, etc, and the fluid will heat up some from this 'work'. 

The shock unit I worked on for this article had a few ounces at best of fluid left in it.  I set up a crude apparatus to measure the oil viscosity at room temperature, as best I could.   I compared the oil with known viscosity suspension/shock fluid oils.   I used the same temperature (55F happened to be the temperature in the shop that day) for all tests.   I measured the time in seconds for the same amount of fluid to flow, from a same size tiny diameter of outlet, from a same tallness of container. Admittedly a crude method; non-the-less it gave reasonably repeatable results.   I tested quite a few synthetic and part-synthetic fork oils & suspension fluids.  I used a well-known high quality and reliable brand, so all tests would be repeatable and usable from the manufacturer's stated specifications.   It is not widely known that various shock and suspension fluids will vary, considerably, between brands, with the same 'stated' viscosity.  There is an article on this website, that discusses and lists many manufacturer's oils, and actual commercial laboratory tests on them, INCLUDING the two oils I have used in this EML 310 shock absorber:  viscosity.htm

The fluid I selected for my first try was Golden Spectro Shock Fluid, Ultra Light, code L.SFUL.  The L supposedly means it came in one liter size bottle.  It has a manufacturer's specification at 40C of 10.4 cST, and a VI of 385.  That should be good in this application.  While there are formulas on this website to convert cST to SUS, I will do it for you:  SUS = 61

Long after I first overhauled this shock absorber, I took it apart again, and after finishing my changes, I used Spectro cartridge forks fluid 85/150. I preferred the results.
See viscosity.htm

Do NOT! install engine oils, heavy fork oils, and so on.   IN MY OPINION the SAE for the oil should not exceed 5, or for very heavy loads, 7.5. 


Electrics:

The K bike incorporates a bulb monitoring relay black box, that is rather complicated in how it works. There are also two versions, using the same identical number on them.
You may want to modify this relay.  I have a photo, and details, in item #2 in this article:  
K-hints.htm   

 


WANTED, For MY GT-2:


1.  some of the steel flexible discs item #4 in the EML shock absorber sketch
 

2.  Tail Light housing and plastic lens: believed to be from 1985 Suzuki Alto, right rear, possibly the 5 door hatchback version.
My GT2 had markings on this plastic lens:
SAE  A  84
1A E6 014246
Tokaidenso, Japan   35603-7800R
amber part had 6313 on it; the red part had 7326 on it, and 85003

This is a lousy photo, but it is the only one I have at present, of what is believed to be the car that the rear taillight assembly of the EML GT2 and GT3 came from.
Note that the proper lens for the sidecar is the right rear, not the left rear.  See the red arrow I put on the photo.


 

For YOUR reference purposes:

Front Light housing:
Possibly Mazda part   BZ0189662  ???   It is still unclear what the number really is.
Front Light plastic lens:  
My GT2 had markings on this plastic lens:
         210-41788R      Jap. "Koito" brand with markings:    <716
                                                                                          <859
                                                                                          <197

The spare/replacement assembly I got had the same sort of plastic lens, but different numbers on it.

I obtained a new spare front lamp assembly for my GT2.   
I think the exact same assembly is used on the GT3.

The first photo, below, shows the front lamp as used on the Mazda 323 Notchback.
The following photo, with a different angle, shows the same lamp (YES, it IS!) on my GT2.

***FLASH!!! 

David has gotten his hands on some brand-new FRONT lamp assemblies for the GT2...and I think
 they fit the GT3 too.   Complete assemblies, including outer lens, etc.

 
Contact him directly: 
david.john.edwards@gmail.com
 
Hopefully he will also find some rear assemblies; I want a spare one of those myself, as noted well above.
 
 

 

NOTE!    There is an EML sidecar group on the Internet:
http://autos.groups.yahoo.com/group/EML_SCL/

I am a Member, Moderator, and Participant


Release:   01-19-2007

Revisions and dates:
01/23/2007:  annotations, pad information, information on lenses
01/27/2007:  minor editing and clarifications
02/21/2007:  update brake pads, calipers, and kit information
02/28/2007:  More info...Flexit, EZS, etc.
04/25/2007:  Add Magura information
05/23/2007:  Put ELECTRICS in sequence, clean up page appearance slightly; minor updates.
07/18/2007:  Add hyperlink
09/17/2007:  Add information on old EML front marker lamps
10/13/2007:  Add 4 photos of very early EML and Grimeca brake
02/16/2008:  Updated information about EML, Eurowing, & EML Yahoo groups website
03/15/2008:  Removed Flexit information, which will be put in its own article
05/05/2008:  Add right rear view of my rig, for a view of the top I built.
09/18/2008:  Add section with hyperlinks to the EML old brochure
10/06/2008:  very minor updating on EZS
03/27-28/2009:  Begin to add information on PIVOT & additional information on the shock unit.
03/29/2008:  Complete the information on the shock unit.
03/31/2009:  Add more information on the pivot bearing.
04/04/2009:  Complete pivot reassembly & toe-in, ETC., & update this article.  Release to Internet.
04/26/2010:  fix hyperlink to .taw
07/21/2010:  Add sale items
07/26/2010:  Remove sale items
11/04/2010:  Remove old brochure photos and their links, in favor of new, better photos.
02/27/2011:  Remove bad hyperlink
03/29/2011:  Add photos and information about Dave Edwards, regarding the front lamp assembly
03/30/2011:  Remove references to Dave Edwards, regarding availability of front lens and lamp
                   assembly, as all are now sold.
04/07/2011:  Clean up article so it is easier to read and understand.
05/26/2011:  Even more cleanup
06/22/2011:  add reference to the front lamps again, as two more are available.
06/29/2011:  Add annotated photo of the TUG rim
07/13/2011:  Fix bad hyperlinks for vintagebrake
08/17/2012:  Add some information on disc dimensions
08/22/2012:  Add line & link to K-hints, for bulb monitoring relay information in the Electrics section
08/30/2012:  Add QR code, change Google code, add small amount of information on rear taillight
                    housing.
09/03/2012:  Add photo and comment for the Suzuki Alto rear.
05/06/2013:  Add a bit of information about Eurowing communications in April 2013.
05/14/2013:  Modify Hella lamp info.
06/27/2013:  Add Grimeca factory hyperlink
07/18/2013:  Add some seal numbers.
08/11/2013:  Add availability of front lamp assemblies from David Edwards.
08/19/2013:  Add availability of the Firestone F560 tires
02/17/2014:  Minor updates, clean up article a bit too
05/08/2014:  Add information about weight measurements for my GT2, as attached.
07/29/2014:  Update information on the shock absorber unit
09/06/2014:  Clean up article a bit more
 

Copyright, 2014, R. Fleischer

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